You can choose to have either a static front page or a blog post page as the homepage for your site. A static front page will contain information you add but can be set to include some of your posts/ recent posts in a slider or widget (depending on the theme). If you create a static front page you will automatically have blog page containing your posts, although you can choose to select a different page to contain your posts.
Make a static front page
By default your site will have the front/home page as a blog page, to change this go to Settings>Reading. From here you will be given options for changing whether you have a static front page or latest posts page.
If you select to have a static front page it will ask which of your existing pages you want to make the front page and which you would like as your posts page.
Change the page of your blog page
If you have chosen to have a blog page on your site, which is not your homepage, then you can choose for any of your pages to contain your posts. Use the Settings>Reading options to select a different page for your posts page.