Essay Writing


Academic writing can be a challenging concept, especially when you are not familiar with the elements of academic style. This page will help you establish what would be considered an academic style suitable for essay writing. Please note that your first port of call for determining essay writing style, should always be your module handbook or your module leader, who will be able to set out the requirements for your academic style. This page will look at some of the common style conventions and give you some practical examples to illustrate the style in practice.

A great started text on academic writing style is Alex Osmond’s Academic Writing and Grammar for Students which offers accessible and practical advice. Use the buttons below to access advice on essay writing. 

The Importance of the Essay Question

Your essay always starts with the essay question. This may be an obvious statement, but it is easy to overlook the importance of the essay question, particularly when deadlines are looming, or the assignment appears to be straightforward.

Taking some time to read and interpret the essay question can be very beneficial to the quality of your essay. Not only does it equip you with a deeper understanding of what you’re being asked to do in the essay, it also outlines the structure that should be followed.

Reading the essay question carefully can save a lot of time and effort, in that it can focus your reading and improve your essay argument.

Interpreting the Question

This is the first step in deciding how to tackle your essay. You need to identify the main concepts you are being asked to explore and note the structure you will have to implement in order to address these. This is also a useful checklist if you having to create your own essay question. Here are a few tips to get you started:

  • Read the essay question carefully several times
  • Underline or highlight the key words and concepts
  • Remind yourself of the essay title and the key words throughout the writing process
  • Identify any instruction words
  • See your module leader for guidance if you are unsure

open-closed questionsConcept, Topic and Focus 

You might see these words floating around in any guidance on essay writing, so this page will help you differentiate them, and identify them in the components of your essay question.

Concepts – key terms or ideas that are used within your subject. These can be disguised as everyday terms, or blatantly expressed in subject-specific language. Either way, they will relate directly to your field of study.

Topics – the broad picture or area that you will be writing about in your essay. This will help to illustrate the context of your essay. 

Focus – the specific areas that need to be covered in your essay. You will never be expected to list everything you know on a topic in an academic essay; the focus will help you narrow down, and indicate the areas for reading.

Essay Instructions

These are the words that your assessor will use to indicate exactly what they would like you to do in your assignment, and the type of thinking and writing you will have to conduct. It is essential that you understand these instructions in order to provide a complete and well-researched response to all part of the question. Click here to download a list of common essay instructions, with explanations.

Essay Plans

Essay-StructureSome Useful Tips for Essay Plans

  • Plan paragraph by paragraph, so your assessor can see that you have thought carefully and critically about each point.
  • It is better to take a few points and examine them in detail, rather than briefly cover lots of points. Speak to your Personal Development Tutor (PDT) if you need clarification.
  • Use the PEE (Point, Evidence, Evaluation) model to make sure that critical analysis is embedded from the get-go!
  • Start planning your essay in plenty of time, so that you have room to plan and then come back to it after a few days. A fresh perspective might help highlight key points you have missed.
  • Assign a logical structure to your points in your essay plan. Cut out your points and move them around, to visualise the structure and connectivity of points. 
  • Click here to download the Marjon Study Skills guide to Essay Plans

Example Essay Titles

One of the most common pieces of feedback given to students about their essays, is that their essay did not answer the essay question! It is easy to get sidetracked when reading for your essay, and give preference in your writing to interesting material, rather than relevant material. In interpreting the question, you are setting up criteria for your academic reading, which will guide your reading. This ensures that if it doesn’t answer the essay question, then it doesn’t get included in the essay.

Below you will find some genuine examples of essay titles that have been set at Universities within the United Kingdom. Go through each one and identify the essay instruction(s), the key concepts and the context of discussion, to find out what is being asked. You can find our interpretation here.

  • Discuss the relation between narrative style and moral judgement in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (University of Sussex, 2018)
  • What is the importance of imitation in early child development? (University of Leicester, 2018)
  • Outline the difficulties facing the tourist industry today. (University College Birmingham, 2018)
  • Compare and contrast the consequences of blindness and deafness for language development. (Loughborough University, 201

Structuring an Essay

Essay structureA common misconception of an essay is that it is a piece of writing that aims to test you on everything you know about a given subject.

On the contrary, essays are intended to be focused in nature and are set to demonstrate to your assessor that you are capable of navigating the literature of your subject area, and emerging with relevant material that demonstrates your understanding.

One way that understanding is demonstrated, is through structure. A well-structured essay can be a clear indicator to an assessor that you have focused your reading, understood what has been asked of you, and that you have engaged in critical analysis. Essays follow a distinct structure, which will be adjusted according to the word count and the nature of the essay question. Click here to find a quick guide to how your essay should be structured.


Essay introductions are an effective way of informing your reader of the course of the essay and to set their expectations of what is to follow. Think of your essay introduction as the first ten minutes of a book or a film: you need to set the scene, so provide some indicators to your reader about the purpose of the essay, establish the context and the focus of your essay. Introductions usually comprise 5-15% of your overall word count, depending on the nature of the essay. Typically, your introduction should do some or all of the following:

  • State why the essay question is important or of interest
  • Define any technical terms or subject-specific jargon
  • Demonstrate your own understanding and interpretation of the essay question
  • Map out the path your essay is going to take, so your reader knows what to expect
  • Set the aims of the essay, so you can achieve them in the main body
  • Justify what the essay won’t cover and why
  • Allow you to explain why you have chosen a particular perspective or approach
  • Provide the reader with a brief indication of the conclusion, so that you and your reader can keep on track

(Content adapted from Day, 2018: p. 43)

For more information on forming introductions, click here for guidance from the Harvard College Writing Center (Kain, 1999). You can also find an example of a well-written introduction here from the University of Leicester.

Download the Marjon Study Skills guide to Writing introductions and conclusions here.

Main Body Paragraphs

The main body of your essay will make up the biggest percentage of your word count and will be divided into paragraphs. The number of paragraphs in your essay will depend on your word count. In academic writing, paragraphs are generally longer, due to the content. As a general rule, one paragraph = one point. Each paragraph should follow a pattern of critical analysis. You will see many acronyms on how to do this, but to get you started, make sure you PEE in every paragraph throughout the main body of your essay! See the example below for how this works in an essay, and advice on what the essay reader (your assessor) is looking for.


The reader’s perspective Example



What is this paragraph about?

What exactly is this?

Tell me more

Image schemas are structures of imagination that relate perception to mental concepts which form a ‘conceptual structure’ of an experience (Oakley, 2007:215). Johnson (1987:29) indicates that everyday activities consist of ‘perceptual experiences’, in which patterns emerge, demonstrating our movement through space, manipulation of objects and sensory interactions.



Who supports this view?

Is there any evidence to support your argument?

Oakley (2007:216) states that humans are constantly generating ‘mental images’, explaining that these are an ‘abstraction’ of ‘immediate perceptions’ that provide the basis for a more comprehensive framework. This means that information from new experiences can be applied to our mental imagery, but the basic schema for the experience does not change.



What is your argument?

Does this relate directly to the essay questions?


This can be illustrated through the example of ‘going to the park by my house’. Walking into the park activates the schema for ‘THE PARK’ which holds the values of grass, a playground, trees, benches, dogs and so on. However, Oakley (2007:216) also notes that the mind also holds a ‘mental model’ of a specific situation. For example, a model of ‘the park by my house’ which is specific to that park and how it can be identified from others.

Adapted from Burns, T. and Sinfield, S. (2013). Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success at University (3rd Edition). London: Sage. Essay example taken from a Plymouth Marjon University student’s undergraduate essay. Expressed permission was received to adapt this work.

Some Useful Tips for the Main Body 

  • Evidence is essential in this part so you will need to use what you have read as evidence for your argument. You are not yet the expert in your subject (that’s why you are writing the essay), so you need to demonstrate what leaders in the field have found, use their findings to justify your position and critically evaluate them.
  • Each paragraph should link, so the flow is maintained. This will sharpen your academic writing skills, and your reader will thank you for it too. If you are not sure how to make these connections, click here for a guide to signposting in essays.


An essay conclusion is so much more than a signal to your reader that your writing has reached an end! Think of the conclusion as your final opportunity to convince your reader that you’ve understood the topic, in order to persuade them to your judgement and analysis. Often, readers remember most what they read last, so it is vital that your conclusion makes an impact. Conclusions usually make up 5-15% of your overall essay, but this will depend on the nature of your essay. Typically, your conclusion should do some or all of the following: 

  • Remind your reader of your interpretation of the essay question and how your response was formulated
  • Summarise the main points in the argument
  • Make a final judgement based on an evaluation of the arguments presented in the main body and what these implicate
  • State the limitations for this particular analysis, and suggest room for improvement
  • Make recommendations for further research

(Content adapted from Day, 2018: p. 45-46)

Your conclusion should not:

  • Include ‘The End’ – your reader can tell by the formatting that they have reached the end of a document, so this doesn’t need to be stated!
  • Summarise everything that has been covered in the essay alone. Your conclusion only needs a brief summary of the main points, so you can concentrate on using these to form your final judgement
  • Introduce new evidence – any evidence that you feel is worth mentioning should be in the main body (unless your assessor specifically grants permission for this)
  • End on snappy quotations or emotional responses that aren’t in keeping with the style of the essay

For more information on writing essay conclusions, click here to visit the Harvard College Writing Centre’s guidance (Bellanca, 1998). Also, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have some great information on ineffective conclusions, so you know what to avoid!

Point of View, Voice & Tense

Point of View in Academic Writing

Style conventions

When you consult study skills sources, most will engage in some debate as to what is acceptable. Traditionally, the world of academia favour third person over first person and second person, as it lends itself more to academic writing due to the objective and formal style. However, in recent years, certain publications are increasingly encouraging submissions to be written in the first person perspective, in order to evoke the expert’s personal point of view: a style known as reflective writing.

Choosing a point of view to write from can be tricky, as first person is common in everyday language and speech, but generally frowned upon in academic writing. This isn’t always explicit in module handbooks or style guides, so heed this solid advice :

Students often ask ‘Can I use first person in my essays?’. Unfortunately, the answer is more complex than just ‘no’, but not much more complex. If in doubt, do not use the first person. Avoid it completely.“

(Osmond, 2013, p.23)

What’s wrong with first/second person?

When you write an essay, you are essentially writing to your assessor, who you may or may not know; but is probably well acquainted with the subject already. Consider the following sentences and the inferences that might be made by your reader.

“I have chosen to focus on this study as I believe it proves my argument.”

Firstly, this is far too personal! As an undergraduate student, your assessor wants proof that you have read widely, and considered the literary evidence. Use of personal pronouns like I/Me/My can suggest that an idea belongs to you, whether you intend to present it this way or not. Think of the role of essay writer like a solicitor in a court case: you need the evidence of others to support or refute the case you are making. You need to be objective and concise, which can only be achieved by writing in the third person. Opinions are traits of the first person and as such, are often subjective and emotional. Also, be careful of using absolute verbs, such as ‘proves’ or ‘disproves’: to understand why, click here to read about hedging in essay writing.

“This study has been chosen to demonstrate my argument to you, so you are able to see my line of reasoning.”

Again, the use of the second person in this example evokes a familiarity with your reader, which isn’t academic or objective. The second person is an ideal tool for explaining or instructing, however, an essay is not the right context for this style of writing. Remember that your assessor is an expert in the field: they don’t need explanations, they need evidence of your understanding and proof of a strong argument, which is best achieved through the third person. Using the second person may seem too casual for the essay context, and you might end up alienating your reader with this style; especially if they do not agree with your argument.

“Smith notes this in his study.”

Although this is written in the third person, there is still an issue with this style, as the language is not gender-fairThis can be avoided by transforming this active sentence into a passive sentence: “It is noted in Smith’s study that…” as all pronouns are removed, giving the sentence an air of objectivity. Here are some examples of how to reformulate first and second person sentences into third person:

“I believe that Smith’s argument is justified because…” to “Smith’s argument is justified because…”

“My belief is that the study illustrates…” to “The findings of this study illustrate…”

“You will be challenged by the results…” to “The results might be challenging to some.”

“This alters our perception of…” to “Perceptions of…  might be altered.”

Active vs Passive 

passive voiceClick here to see a short video clip from Grammar Lessons on YouTube to understand the difference in construction, shape and use.


Switching from one to the other can have a profound effect on your writing. Sometimes, reformulating an active sentence to a passive sentence can just sound bizarre!

Generally, the active voice is preferred in academic writing as it is objective, clear and concise and doesn’t leave room for ambiguity, for example: “The research suggests a correlation between smoking and heart disease.” 


Use the ‘Find’ (Ctrl + F keyboard shortcut) tool in your essay and look for the word ‘by’ as this will highlight instances of the passive voice and help you reformulate to the active voice.

Passive sentences can seem old-fashioned and wordy, making sentences hard to follow and complex. However, this isn’t a hard and fast rule, as there are a few circumstances when the passive voice can be helpful in academic writing. This blog-post also makes an interesting case for the benefits of using the passive voice in writing.

1 . The passive voice allows you to remove a subject – which is handy to overcome use of the first person, or if you want to omit the identity of the subject:

ACTIVE:  “To reach the following conclusion, I analysed the results of the survey” becomes 

PASSIVE (no subject): “To reach the following conclusion, the results of the survey were analysed.”

2 . The passive voice allows you to emphasise the object of a sentence, especially when it is not clear:

ACTIVE: “Right-wing groups often dismiss global-warming research” becomes

PASSIVE: “Global-warming research is often dismissed by right-wing groups.” 

3 . The passive voice can help improve the flow of your writing, but use with caution, especially with complex sentences that are linked together.

Your essay will demonstrate a lot of research, and therefore, a lot of ‘doing’. Every verb in your essay will be written in a certain tense, in order to signal to your reader when an action takes place, for example, in the past, present or future. When a verb is changed to indicate tense, a writer must also make sure that the verb agrees with the subject; the image on the left demonstrates how to achieve this. Tenses are used without thought in spoken language, but can be tricky to grasp, particularly if English is your second language.

Study skills support for Speakers of English as a Second Language can be found here.

Is there a correct tense to use in essay writing?

Unfortunately, there isn’t a hard and fast rule when it comes to the use of tenses in essay writing. The George Mason University Writing Centre (2017) has an excellent guide to the use of tense and voice in academic writing. Similarly, The Writing Center at UNC Chapel Hill (2018) has a handy short guide to tense and purpose, which you can download here.

As an essay writer, you have to weigh up a number of grammatical constructions, in order to convey your meaning in the clearest way. Simplicity is key! For this reason, Osmond (2013, p. 74-75) recommends that continuous tenses are avoided in essay writing and simple tenses are used instead:


Members of the public forget that the police are running complex initiatives for citizen safety

In this novel, the author seems to be suggesting that wealth and power are often coterminous in the upper classes.


Members of the public forget that the police run complex initiatives for citizen safety

In this novel, the author seems to suggest that wealth and power are often coterminous in the upper classes. 

In academic writing, it is good practice to be consistent with your use of tense, particularly within the same sentence. However, there are some circumstances that indicate a need for a change of tense, for example, in order to convey a timeline. Watch the short video below to see how tense shifts can be a useful tool in your writing.



Using an Appropriate Style

paper with wordsAcademic writing need not be complicated, but it does need to have an element of formality. Your choice of words for an academic assignment should be more considered and careful. You are limited by your word count, so you need to ensure that your selection of a word is the most appropriate for your argument. Here are some useful web pages and videos to get you started:

Dictionary/ – useful to check if a word is correct to a context or if you are looking for synonyms of overused words

Newcastle University Library  – great overview video on the elements of academic style

University of New England – advice on all elements of appropriate academic style

What’s wrong with these styles?

The two examples below are responses to the essay title Critique Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment in terms of infant-parent bonds. Take a look at each and note the styles used and why they might not be considered academic.

Example One

At the end of the day, bonds between a mother and a child don’t just occur overnight! It’s clear that Bowlby’s (1958) theory of attachment is the best explanation of a mother-child relationship, as he put together the stages of attachment as related to a kid’s behavior. TOA was based on evolutionary psychology, as he reckoned a strong attachment meant a bigger chance of survival.

Watch this video for comments on Example One’s style:

Example Two

From that evidence, it would appear that Bowlby’s theory of attachment is quite wonderful in terms of the explanation for mother-child bonds. However, it is also very apparent that the theory was in affect at a horrid time (i.e. somewhere around the 50’s) when men were not considered to be ‘care-givers’ – let alone primary care-givers.

Such is by no means the case in the present day, where men are considered to be equally responsible for the developing bond between parent and child, despite their shortcomings.

Watch this video for comments on Example Two’s style:

Example Three

Bowlby’s (1958) Theory of Attachment (TOA) is viewed by some academics as the most prominent explanation for the development of mother and child bonds. TOA is evolutionary in stance, as Bowlby believed that infants are biologically programmed to seek and form attachments as a matter of survival Bowlby theorised that attachments are activated by actions that threaten separation of the infant from their mother (McLeod, 2007).

At this point, it is vital to note that Bowlby’s theory looked specifically at the mother and child relationship, as opposed to the caregiver and child relationship. Furthermore, Bowlby referred specifically to the effects of maternal deprivation on a child’s development. Speculation exists around the applicability of this theory in the modern day, as mothers and fathers may assume the role of primary care-giver, or in equal measure, as joint care-givers.

Watch this video for comments on Example Three’s style:



Punctuation & Grammar

Punctuation & Grammar 

Grammar is such a big subject area, that it would be a huge job to note every convention or (as is often the case in English) irregularity that exists in writing.  Below, you will find some links to sites, useful books on the topic and more:

  • Using English for Academic Purposes – developed by Andy Gillet specifically for Higher Education students, this website is a complete guide to academic writing, including advice on grammar and vocabulary
  • The Internet Grammar of English – UCL have developed a fantastic resource for undergraduate students, which assumes no prior grammatical experience. It can also be downloaded as a mobile app
  • Improve Your Writing – The University of Bristol have developed an excellent set of guidelines for common grammatical errors, how to fix them and a number of handy exercises that can improve your essay grammar
  • Academic Writing and Grammar for Students – Link to Alex Osmond’s incredibly easy to follow text, available to loan from the Library. Chapter 7 looks at common grammatical errors and how to overcome them simply
  • How to Write Better Essays – Link to Brian Greetham’s book, available to loan from the Library. Chapters 30 – 33 are particularly helpful
  • The Essay Writer’s Guide to Punctuation – Knowing the function of each piece of punctuation and where they can be applied in your academic writing, will help improve your style and structure


The Art of Hedging 


MarjonHedging is an academic writing technique used to protect claims and issue caution. It is an excellent tool to demonstrate critical thinking, as it shows your essay reader that you have considered evidence contextually and the level of certainty that exists for an argument or claim. To demonstrate, consider the differences between the following claims:

1 . Students who reference well in their academic essays obtain higher marks. Therefore, study skills sessions must be made available to all undergraduates.

2 . Research suggests that students who reference well in their academic essays might obtain higher marks. It would appear that the availability of study skills sessions to undergraduates might have a positive impact.

To begin with, Claim 2 is wordier than Claim 1. You might find this odd, particularly as academic writing needs to be clear and concise, but often, certainty cannot be expressed so a writer must hedge in order to make clear that their claims are open to argument, interpretation and further research. In Claim 1, the writer is confidently expressing a claim, implying that it is absolute and incontestable. Claim 2  expresses more caution, and doesn’t fully commit to the one perspective. This is clear through language choices such as suggests and might. This indicates a degree of speculation and thereby leaves room for the essay writer to analyse.The use of hedging to qualify  what is being said in your essay is the sign of a confident writer.

Click here for The Academic Phrasebank’s guidance on ‘Being Cautious’ in writing

Here are some examples of how to hedge in your essay:

HedgingClick here for a guide on some of the things to avoid in your writing, to achieve a formal style.




You may find emojis, icons, text-talk or shorthand useful in the essay planning process. This is fine, but make sure they are removed or substituted for formal alternatives in your essay drafts!

Using Sensitive Language  

Academic writing is supposed to be objective, precise and unemotional. These are all qualities you will need to master in your academic writing style. However, that doesn’t mean that you should write insensitively in order to achieve objectivity. After all, the world of academia aims to be inclusive and accepting of all disciplines, experience and expertise. Demonstrating sensitivity in your writing is a clear sign that you, as an individual, are tuned in to the wider context of your subject area, global occurrences, and that you can illustrate this in an unbiased way. This is an area of writing that many have commented on, particularly in terms of using language that is gender-fair:

Formal & Sensitive Writing

Formal Language

Although academic writing should not be complex, it does require an element of due care and consideration for the words you use. There are certain types of words and phrases that should be avoided for many reasons. One reason is the impact these word choices will have on the overall tone of your essay, particularly if it is not in keeping with the rest of your writing style. Another reason is that these words are often non-specific and too general, meaning they cannot be applied at a critical level. Click here for a guide on some of the things to avoid in your writing, to achieve a formal style.


You may find emojis, icons, text-talk or shorthand useful in the essay planning process. This is fine, but make sure they are removed or substituted for formal alternatives in your essay drafts!

 Using Sensitive Language  

Academic writing is supposed to be objective, precise and unemotional. These are all qualities you will need to master in your academic writing style. However, that doesn’t mean that you should write insensitively in order to achieve objectivity. After all, the world of academia aims to be inclusive and accepting of all disciplines, experience and expertise. Demonstrating sensitivity in your writing is a clear sign that you, as an individual, are tuned in to the wider context of your subject area, global occurrences, and that you can illustrate this in an unbiased way. This is an area of writing that many have commented on, particularly in terms of using language that is gender-fair:

Clarity & Conciseness

Clarity and conciseness are two different elements of academic writing, but they are very closely linked. Your academic writing needs to be both: but this is not simply an exercise in stripping down your writing to the bare minimum. It is about making your argument through effective and considered language choice.

Why do we need to pay special attention to these two characteristics? Think of your reader. Your assessor will only get to read the final product and will assess you based on what you have submitted alone. They can’t ask questions, or ask you to clarify at a later time, so it is important that you ensure there is no room for ambiguity or confusion! The essay is a demonstration of your learning and understanding. To write clearly, is to demonstrate clear thought, which will go a long way in terms of essay marks.

The following guidance might be of use to you if you struggle with getting to the point in your essay, or if you’ve had similar feedback on an assignment. These tips are also handy if you have overshot your word count, or just generally want to makeover your writing.

Simplicity over complexity 

There is a misconception that academic writing has to be overly grand and verbose. However, writing in a simple and concise style will actually enable you to become a better writer, as well as a better critical thinker. Taking some time to consider your constructions in essay writing style will allow you to make the most of your essay word count, and fill it full of critical points and crucial information. These points are also useful if you are looking to reduce your word count through editing. For more on this, visit our page on Proofreading & Editing. (COMING SOON).

Consider these constructions and how you could make them more concise:

  1. Each and every participant was provided a form which they had to sign and return by a given date.
  2. Participants were permitted to take as long as they needed to completely finish the tasks. This was necessary, as many answers asked for past memories and personal opinions.
  3. During this period of time, participants undertook tasks linked to the educational process and activities. Younger participants completed the tasks at an earlier time than older participants, but older participants answered in a more accurate manner.
  4. It could be inferred that the younger participants completed the general tasks faster than older participants, as they really had a closer experience to school, in terms of time elapsed since leaving, than certain older participants.
  5. With regards to neurocognitive facilities, it could also be perceived that adolescents have a greater predilection and affinity for schemes of instruction than their adult counterparts, due to their employment of key faculties and intellect which had not yet deteriorated.
  6. On the contrary, adult participants were engaged in an activity for longer periods of time, suggesting that they have a stronger attention span.
  7. Finally, the experiment setting might have contributed to the overall results, as the participants were asked to sit in a room with a two-way mirror on the wall adjacent to the table. The mirror was fixed so that the participants couldn’t see out, but the researcher could observe the participants. This was important as the participants did not know that the researcher was observing them at this point due to a two way mirror.

Useful Sources for Concise Writing 

Page References

Greetham, B. (2013). How to write better essays (3rd edition.) Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Loughborough University. (2018). What does the question mean? [PDF]. Retrieved on 26 November 2018 from

University College Birmingham. (2018). Essay writing [webpage]. Retrieved on 26 November 2018 from

University of Leicester. (2018). Introduction to an essay: example [webpage]. Retrieved on 26 November 2018 from

University of Sussex. (2018). Example Essays [webpage]. Retrieved on 26 November 2018 from

Bellanca, P. (1998). Ending the Essay: Conclusions [online]. Retrieved on 4 December 2018 from

Day, T. (2018). Success in Academic Writing (2nd Edition). London: Palgrave.

Kain, P. (1999). Beginning the Academic Essay [online]. Retrieved on 4 December 2018 from

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (2018). Conclusions [online]. Retrieved on 4 December 2018 from

University of Hull. (2018). Basic essay structure [online]. Retrieved on 30 November 2018 from

University of Leicester. (2018). Introduction to an essay: example [online]. Retrieved on 4 December 2018 from

University of Sheffield. (2018). 301: Academic Skills Centre: Planning and Structuring an Essay [online]. Retrieved on 30 November 2018 from

Freeman, T. (2013) What’s wrong with the passive voice? [blog]. Retrieved from

Gillet, A. (2018). Using English for Academic Purposes For Students in Higher Education [online]. Retrieved from .

Greetham, B. (2013). How to Writer Better Essay (3rd Edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Osmond, A. (2013). Academic Writing and Grammar for Students. London: Sage.

Sword, H. (2012). Stylish Academic Writing. London: Harvard University Press.

The George Mason University Writing Center. (2017). The Three Common Tenses Used in Academic Writing [online]. Retrieved from

University College London. (1998). The Internet Grammar of English [online]. Retrieved from .

University of Bristol. (2015). Improve your Writing [online]. Retrieved from .

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (2018). Verb tenses [online]. Retrieved from