Article on Chronic Pain and ways and effectiveness on managing it.

This article will discuss chronic pain management, it will explain what pain is and how it is managed within clients and patients in different ways. Firstly, chronic pain is described as “pain that carries on for longer than 12 weeks despite medication or treatment.” (“Chronic pain”, 2019). This is stating that if the pain lasts less than 12 weeks it will only be considered acute pain but if is lasting any longer than 12 weeks then it can be classified as chronic as it is a persistent pain.

Chronic pain can happen to anyone and studies have shown that treating patients with chronic pain can be difficult to fully treat with just exercise alone (Gatchel, McGeary, McGeary & Lippe, 2014). This is also true in manual therapy; this is when compared with cognitive functional therapy. Results have shown that patients with chronic pain have improved more when they are included in cognitive functional therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy while doing manual therapy and exercise instead of doing manual therapy and exercise alone (Vibe Fersum, et al., 2012). There are studies that imply that cognitive functional therapy can help with the improvement of the effectiveness of manual therapy when relating to chronic pain. Although these studies also suggest that there is not enough evidence on how much cognitive functional therapy actually helps with chronic pain but states that it can help with the improvement of the patients overall mood (Eccleston, et al., 2008). The client having an improved mood and having a positive outlook could help with the person with their pain this is because they would have more of an understanding of the weaknesses that they have and using that to focus on positive emotions and to develop through the pain (Majani, 2011). When the cognitive functional therapy is used and applied correctly to clients and patients it can be used to help improve their chronic pain by teaching the clients to understand what their fears are and to help with their negative behaviours and to manage them (O’Sullivan, et al., 2018).

In conclusion chronic pain is managed in a few different ways, this includes behavioural therapy alongside the manual therapy that would usually be given within a clinical setting, this is because it will help to increase their rehabilitation and recovery and help ease their pain more efficiently. This is done by increasing the clients positivity levels and to establish how they can improve their moods by managing their negative behaviours.



Chronic pain. (2019). Retrieved from

Eccleston, C., Morley, S., & Williams, A. (2008). Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd007407

Gatchel, R., McGeary, D., McGeary, C., & Lippe, B. (2014). Interdisciplinary chronic pain management: Past, present, and future. American Psychologist, (Vol 69), (No.2), (pp119-130). doi: 10.1037/a0035514

Majani, G. (2011). Positive psychology in psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine. Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, (Vol 33), (No.1), (pp8-64).

O’Sullivan, P., Caneiro, J., O’Keeffe, M., Smith, A., Dankaerts, W., Fersum, K., & O’Sullivan, K. (2018). Cognitive Functional Therapy: An Integrated Behavioral Approach for the Targeted Management of Disabling Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy, (Vol 98), (No.5), (pp408-423). doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzy022

Vibe Fersum, K., O’Sullivan, P., Skouen, J., Smith, A., & Kvåle, A. (2012). Efficacy of classification-based cognitive functional therapy in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal Of Pain, (Vol 17) (No.6), (pp916-928). doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2012.00252.x