October 2019

Underlay ……..Underlay……..

Today an interesting lesson was learnt I do not have to experience the 10/10 pain of taking tape off after rugby……. underlay stops all of my hairs getting ripped off my legs when taking my tape off!

pre-wrap or underlay can protect your skin from the potential irritation of wearing adhesive tapes (i.e. Zinc Oxide & EAB). Acting as a thin barrier, underwrap is applied before overlaying it with str tape.


Ultrasound Mondays

Ultrasound therapy (US) uses sound waves above the range of human hearing to treat sports injuries, the aim of Ultrasound is to stimulate the soft tissue to increase blood flow and promote healing to speed up recovery.

ultrasound uses mechanical vibration of a crystal inside the  metal treatment head. it is important to continuously move the  over the surface of the skin in the region of the injury transmitting the energy into the tissues.

As the ultrasound waves pass from the treatment head into the skin they cause the vibration of the surrounding tissues, particularly those that contain collagen. This increased vibration leads to the production of heat within the tissue. In most cases, this cannot be felt by the patient themselves. This increase in temperature may cause an increase in the extensibility of structures such as ligaments, tendons, scar tissue, and fibrous joint capsules. In addition, heating may also help to reduce pain and muscle spasm and promote the healing process. (Walden, 2019) Source sportsinjuryclinic.net

However ultrasound has a number of Contraindications the list below is not exclusive and you should always take all safety precautions

“Do not use if the patient suffers from:

  • Malignant or cancerous tissue
  • Acute infections
  • Risk of haemorrhage
  • pins nuts bolts or any other metal
  • Severely ischemic tissue
  • Recent history if venous thrombosis
  • Exposed neural tissue
  • Suspicion of a bone fracture
  • If the patient is pregnant
  • Do not use in the region of the gonads (sex organs), the active bone growth plates of children, or the eye.” McGraw Hill (1995)

add refrerence https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference-proceedings-of-spie/10484/104840O/Structural-and-functional-assessment-of-intense-therapeutic-ultrasound-effects-on/10.1117/12.2288525.short?SSO=1

Prentice, William E. “Rehabilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine”, 1995, McGraw Hill

Rugby S+C session

The Marjon Men’s Rugby play and train on a 3G pitch.

Charmian (2014) suggested that there was increased injury risk and the pattern of the results indicate that the females of the study experienced positions in which injury potential in greater on artificial turf. It was therefore concluded that artificial turf had a greater injury potential than natural turf.

Because of the potential increased risk factor the Rugby team have decided to undergo a S+C program to strengthen lower limb joints ankles and knees to reduce the risk of sustaining an injury. below is an image of the players performing a Squat this exercise was chosen to be part of the program for a number of reasons, firstly it is sport specific squatting replicates a number of movemts that would occur in a a rugby match like lifting in a line out and leg drives in a maul. It also works the lower body at the same time as activating the core, the aim of implementing squatting is so that core strength can be improved.  thus reducing the risk of injury as well as improving performance. “The well-trained core is essential for optimal performance and injury prevention.” McGill (2019) Cissik (2011)

The Role of Core Training in Athletic Performance, Injury Prevention, and Injury Treatment Cissik, John M MBA, MS, CSCS*D, NSCA-CPT*D Strength and Conditioning Journal: February 2011 – Volume 33 – Issue 1 – p 10-15

lower limb massage

Today’s session we focused on all different types of lower limb massage techniques

Some of the physical benefits of massage include:
  • reduced muscle tension.
  • improved circulation.
  • stimulation of the lymphatic system.
  • reduction of stress hormones.
  • relaxation.
  • increased joint mobility and flexibility.
  • improved skin tone.
  • improved recovery of soft tissue injuries.

Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical therapists. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce. (Brummitt,2008)

Hemmings (2001) stated that more scientific research on the effects of massage needs to be undertaken to clarify the precise effects of massage for athletes, however applying scientific principles to the study of massage does pose methodological challenges for the researcher.


Something from today’s clinic 😊

Posted by Flow Therapies on Thursday, August 1, 2019

today at flow I assisted in giving (IFC) Interferential Current therapy it was very interesting we even had a gap in the clinic and I

was hooked up to the machine to see how it feels.  the patients were having some very positive outcomes with this treatment. ‘interferential current therapy is stimulation made by the interception of two electrical mediums of varying frequencies that work together to successfully stimulate large impulse fibers. These frequencies interfere with the pain transmission messages at the spinal cord level.’Jorge P. Fuentes, Susan Armijo Olivo, David J. Magee, Douglas P. Gross, Effectiveness of Interferential Current Therapy in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Physical Therapy, Volume 90, Issue 9, 1 September 2010, Pages 1219–1238, https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090335

Olawale (2014) showed that interferential therapy combined with exercise therapy could help to reduce pain intensity and increase spinal range of motion in patients with low back pain.


BUCS Volleyball (pitch-side)

Today was my first BUCS pitch-side experience. Marjon Women Vs Falmouth University. Pre-game I applied K tape to a players knee because of a Previous MCL injury and taped a few players fingers for any information on how to tape  first aid for sport provide a Taping Guide

Mostafavifar (2012)  found ”insufficient evidence to indicate that KT decreases pain and disability in young patients with shoulder impingement/tendinitis, while the second suggested that KT may provide short-term pain relief for patients with shoulder impingement. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the use of KT following musculoskeletal injury, although a perceived benefit cannot be discounted. There are few high-quality studies examining the use of KT following musculoskeletal injury.”

A systematic review of the effectiveness of kinesio taping for musculoskeletal injury.

Mostafavifar M, Wertz J, Borchers J.

Phys Sportsmed. 2012 Nov;40(4):33-40. doi: 10.3810/psm.2012.11.1986. Review.


One of the Falmouth Players injured her ankle and possibly did some damage to one of her tendons  further information can be found in the

Accident Reports

SCAT Testing and concussion

concussion is one of the hot topics in sport at the moment, and so it should be. Letting a player continue to play with a suspected concussion could have a significant negative impact on the well being and normal lifestyle of the player. How someone functions in everyday life is far more important than any sports fixture, even the world cup final!

The RFU Rugby Football Union  has a useful tool for coaches and players called Headcase that aims to raise awareness about concussion and what to do if you suspect one they even make a pocket book that will 100% be going in my first aid bag!

The SCAT Test is an ideal way to get a baseline score so you can do an pitch-side assessment when you suspect a concussion the Key point to take away from the BJSM scat test is that

  1. Any athlete with suspected concussion should be REMOVED FROM PLAY, medically assessed and monitored for deterioration. No athlete diagnosed with concussion should be returned to play on the day of injury.
  2. If an athlete is suspected of having a concussion and medical personnel are not immediately available, the athlete should be referred to a medical facility for urgent assessment.

During Wednesdays Marjon 1st XV rugby match the fullback sustained a blow to the head and was immediately removed from the game the player showed no immediate signs of concussion however was not allowed to play on as a precaution at a team meeting 48 hours later the player appeared to be drunk and intoxicated and had sunglasses on as the light hurt his eyes myself and a number of players recognized something was not right at this point he was seen by a member of clinic staff and is now being treated for concussion.

If I had not undertaken the Headcase training from the RFU I would have had no idea what was going on.

I personally believe education is the most important tool to combat concussion and would encourage all coaches and players to under take the Headcase training it could save a life one day.

I had the pleasure of meeting Welsh international rugby player George north in the warm up to the 6 nations and was able to chat to him about his concussions and the year he spent not being able to play rugby. George sustained 5 blows to the head in 2 years and the shocking images of his concussions shocked many viewers and I think was a huge driving force in removing the stigma of head injuries previously I have taken a knock whilst playing and was told to ” get on with it” or “man up!”. Because his case was so high profile it really did get many people talking about how we deal with concussions in rugby and this can only be a good thing.

The changing nature of concussion in rugby union: Looking back to look forward

Communication is Key


Today at Flow one of the clients was a England Deaf Squash player, this was particularly difficult to communicate as he could not tell us what was wrong and what treatment he needed, the therapist I was shadowing is actually learning sign language so that he can communicate efficiently with his client.

I just think it is good to reflect that you may not be able to communicate with your client for a number of reasons like language barrier or disability but with team work and a willingness to think outside of the box I think a good sports rehabilitation practitioner should be able to overcome most obstacles

British Sign Language

McMillan Cancer Clinic

Today I assisted with a McMillan cancer rehabilitation clinic the aim of the clinic is so that we can assist patients live a healthy lifestyle after cancer treatment

McMillan is a charity that helps people get their life back on track after cancer more information about them can be found on the following link

Before the patient participates in the McMillan exercise program it is important to record some baseline tests so we can establish any improvements that take place during the course of the rehab program. one of the tests used was the

Hand grip Strength Test

The purpose of this test is to measure the maximum isometric strength of the hand and forearm muscles. Hand grip strength is important for any sport in which the hands are used for catching, throwing or lifting. Also, as a general rule people with strong hands tend to be strong elsewhere, so this test is often used as a general test of strength.

Helen C. Roberts, Hayley J. Denison, Helen J. Martin, Harnish P. Patel, Holly Syddall, Cyrus Cooper and Avan Aihie Sayer, A review of the measurement of grip strength in clinical and epidemiological studies: towards a standardised approach. Age Ageing (2011) 40 (4): 423-429.


Plymouth 10K

Today was My first event,

Myself and Fellow Rehab students were volunteering at the Plymouth 10K race

It was very unusual to me as any massage I had previously done had been in a clinical environment, it was fast paced and a high volume of clients.

rather than treating one client we had people lining up out of the door to see us,

it was all for a good cause as we were asking for donations towards supporting children in Nepal.

working in the field was good because it teaches you to plan ahead and bring everything you need, we had so many clients we nearly ran out of massage lotion so this would be something to consider for the future ……always making sure you have enough supplies to get you through the day and a little extra just in case.